Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes: A New Frontier in Cancer Immunotherapy
ID : RND_045744 Format : PDF July, 2019 Publisher : BCC Research Pages : 21
- An overview of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) for the treatment of metastatic cancer
- Discussion of the development of TIL as a treatment option for melanoma and the possibilities to expand this therapy to other types of cancer
- Exploration of adoptive T-cell therapy (ATCT) using antigen-specific CD8+ T cell clones for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, and the curative potential of ATCT in a variety of other solid tumors
- Comparison between two main technologies of tumor immunotherapy, chimeric antibody receptor engineered T Cell (CAR-T) and genetically modified T cell receptors (TCR)
- Information on the role of TILs as a strong prognostic biomarker for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and their potential ramifications"
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which include B-cells, T-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, are an important component in anti-tumor immune responses. TILs involve the use of special immune cells called T-cells, a type of lymphocyte or white blood cell. Lymphocytes protect the body from viral infections, help other cells fight bacterial and fungal infections, produce antibodies, fight cancers, and coordinate the activities of other cells in the immune system.
Some tumors are highly infiltrated by immune cells, while only subtle infiltrations are detectable in others. In general, an increased number of immune cells correlates with a favorable clinical outcome in various malignancies, such as melanoma, colorectal, lung and breast cancers. TILs may offer a new target for cancer immunotherapy – to allow the precise killing of cells through tumor antigen recognition – and may also serve as a prognostic biomarker in a variety of cancers.
TILs express a variety of different antigens on their cell membrane including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD20, CD56 and CD57, CD68, CD169 and FOXP3, to regulate the immune system and to suppress tumor growth (Table 1). Several studies have demonstrated that upregulation of immune checkpoint (CP) proteins such as PD-1, CTLA-4, Tim-3 and LAG-3, can lead to TILs exhaustion and tumor progression, whereas blockade of CP proteins suppresses tumor growth, increases glucose uptake in TILs and reinvigorates their function."
"Table of Contents
Chapter 1 The Emergence of Cell Therapy Using TILs
Chapter 2 Development of TIL Therapies in Metastic Melanoma
TIL Generation Explained
Importance of Lymphodepletion
Role of Interleukin-2
Feasibility of TIL as a Mainstream Treatment Option
Chapter 3 Development of TIL Therapies in Other Tumour Types
Head and Neck Cancers
Chapter 4 Clinical Development of TIL Therapies
Lifileucel (LN-144), Iovance Biotherapeutics
LN-145, Iovance Biotherapeutics
TILT-123, TILT Biotherapeutics
Optera Therapeutics Corp.
Other Centers Conducting TIL Research
Future Perspectives for TIL
Chapter 5 References"
"List of Figures
Figure 1 : Generation of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes
Figure 2 : IL-2 Signaling Pathways and their Primary Biological Effects in Different Immune Cell Types
Figure 3 : TILT Biotherapeutics Development Pipeline"
A research methodology is a systematic approach for assessing or conducting a market study. Researchers tend to draw on a variety of both qualitative and quantitative study methods, inclusive of investigations, survey, secondary data and market observation.
Such plans can focus on classifying the products offered by leading market players or simply use statistical models to interpret observations or test hypotheses. While some methods aim for a detailed description of the factors behind an observation, others present the context of the current market scenario.
Now let’s take a closer look at the research methods here.
Secondary Research Model:
Extensive data is obtained and cumulated on a substantial basis during the inception phase of the research process. The data accumulated is consistently filtered through validation from the in-house database, paid sources as well reputable industry magazines. A robust research study requires an understanding of the overall value chain. Annual reports and financials of industry players are studied thoroughly to have a comprehensive idea of the market taxonomy.
Post conglomeration of the data obtained through secondary research; a validation process is initiated to verify the numbers or figures. This process is usually performed by having a detailed discussion with the industry experts.
However, we do not restrict our primary interviews only to the industry leaders. Our team covers the entire value chain while verifying the data. A significant number of raw material suppliers, local manufacturers, distributors, and stakeholders are interviewed to make our findings authentic. The current trends which include the drivers, restraints, and opportunities are also derived through the primary research process.
The market estimation is conducted by analyzing the data collected through both secondary and primary research. This process involves market breakdown, bottom-up and top- down approach.
Moreover, while forecasting the market a comprehensive statistical time series model is designed for each market. Macroeconomic indicators are considered to understand the current trends of the market. Each data point is verified by the process of data triangulation method to arrive at the final market estimates.
The penultimate process results in a holistic research report. The study equips key industry players to undertake significant strategic decisions through the findings. The report encompasses detailed market information. Graphical representations of the current market trends are also made available in order to make the study highly comprehensible for the reader.
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